Sunday, 28 May 2017

The Foreword: Lessons from the Qur'an: No Dua is Wasted (Episode 23)

No dua is wasted, so never forego an opportunity to supplicate your Lord. 

                      

This episode is about verse 2:186, which falls right in the middle of the verses on fasting:

"If My slaves ask you about Me, I am Near. I answer the call of the caller when he calls on Me. They should therefore respond to Me and believe in Me so that hopefully they will be rightly guided."

Every dua carries three possibilities: it will be answered, it will be stored for you as a reward, or it will be an expiation for your sins.

Related Posts:
The Book on the Adkhar of Fasting
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Ramadan

Wednesday, 24 May 2017

The Book on the Adhkār of Fasting

From the Adhkār of Imam Yaḥyā an-Nawawī



The Book on the Adhkār of Fasting

By Imam Yaḥyā an-Nawawī


Translated by Mahdi Lock[1]

1_The chapter on what one says if one sees the crescent and what one says if one sees the moon


474_ We have related in the Musnad of ad-Dāramī and the book of at-Tirmidhī, on the authority of Ṭalḥah Ibn ʿUbayd Allah, may Allah be pleased with him, that when the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, saw the crescent he would say: “O Allah, bring the crescent upon us in safety and faith, and in peace and Islam. My Lord and your Lord[2] is Allah.”[3] At-Tirmidhī said, ‘It is a ḥasan ḥadīth.’

475_ We have related in the Musnad of ad-Dāramī, on the authority of Ibn ʿUmar, may Allah be pleased with both of them, that he said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, saw the crescent moon, he would say: “Allahu Akbar, O Allah, bring the crescent upon us in safety and faith, in peace and Islam and with enabling success for what You love and are pleased with. Our Lord and your Lord is Allah.”[4]

476_ We have related in the Sunan of Abū Dāwūd, in the book of etiquette,[5] on the authority of Qatādah that it reached him that when the Prophet of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, saw the crescent moon he would say: “A crescent moon is goodness and guidance, a crescent moon is goodness and guidance, a crescent moon is goodness and guidance. I believe in Allah, who created you” three times. Then he would say: “All praise be to Allah, who has taken such-and-such month and brought such-and-such month.”

In the narration on the authority of Qatādah, that when the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, saw the crescent moon he would turn his face away from it, both of these have been related by Abū Dāwūd and they are mursal.[6] In some of the copies of Abū Dāwūd, Abū Dāwūd has said, ‘In this chapter, there is no ḥadīth from the Prophet, may Allah prayers and peace be upon him, which is musnad[7] and ṣaḥīḥ.’

We have related it in the book of Ibn Al-Sunnī, on the authority of Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī, from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him.

As for seeing the moon:

477_ We have related in the book of Ibn as-Sunnī, on the authority of ʿĀʾisha, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, ‘When the moon appeared, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, would take my hand and say: “Seek refuge in Allah from the evil of this darkness when it gathers.”

478_ We have related in Ḥilyat al-Awliyāʾ, with a chain of transmission that contains some weakness, on the authority of Ziyād an-Numayrī, on the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘When the month of Rajab entered, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, would say: “O Allah, bless us in Rajab and Shaʿbān and cause us to reach Ramaḍān.”

We have also related it in the book of Ibn as-Sunnī with something extra.[8]

2_ The chapter on the recommended adhkār for fasting

When making one’s intention for fasting, it is recommended to join between the tongue and the heart, as we have said with regards to other acts of worship. If one only intends in the heart then that is sufficient. If one only intends on the tongue then that is insufficient, without any difference of opinion. The Sunnah is that if someone insults one or acts foolishly towards him while he is fasting, he should say, ‘I am fasting, I am fasting’, two times or more.

479_ We have related in the Ṣaḥīḥ collections of al-Bukhārī and Muslim, on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: “Fasting is a shield, so if one of you is fasting let him not behave in an obscene or ignorant manner, and if someone fights him or abuses him, let him say, ‘I am fasting, I am fasting’, two times.”

I have said: It has been said that one says it with one’s tongue so that the one abusing one can hear it and perhaps be held back and rebuked. It has also been said that it is with the heart so that one can refrain from abuse and safeguard one’s fast. The first is more obvious. The meaning of ‘abuses him’[9] is to insult him and expose him to his abuse, and Allah knows best.

480_ We have related in the books of at-Tirmidhī and Ibn Mājah, on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: “The supplications of three people are not rejected; the fasting person until he breaks his fast, the just ruler and the supplication of the person who is oppressed.”’ At-Tirmidhī said, ‘It is a ḥasan ḥadīth.’[10]

3_ The chapter on what to say when breaking one’s fast

481_ We have related in the Sunan of Abū Dāwūd and an-Nasāʾī, on the authority of Ibn ʿUmar, may Allah be pleased with both of them, who said, ‘When the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, broke his fast, he would say: “Thirst[11] has gone, the veins have been moistened and the reward has been confirmed, if Allah the Exalted so wills.”[12][13]

Allah the Exalted has said, “That is because no thirst will afflict them.” [at-Tawbah 9:120] I have only mentioned this, even though it is obvious, because I have seen some people who are confused about the word and they write it with an alif.[14]

482_ We have related in the Sunan of Abū Dāwūd, on the authority of Muʿādh Ibn Zuhrah, that it reached him that when the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, broke his fast he would say: “O Allah, for you I have fasted and with Your provision I have broken it.”[15] This is how he related it and it is mursal.

483_ We have related in the book of Ibn as-Sunnī, on the authority of Muʿādh Ibn Zahra, who said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, would break his fast, he would say: “All praise be to Allah, who has assisted me and I have fasted, who has provided for me and I have broken my fast.”[16]

484_ We have related in the book of Ibn as-Sunnī, on the authority of Ibn ʿAbbās, may Allah be pleased with both of them, who said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, would break his fast, he would say: “O Allah, for You we have fasted and with Your provision we have broken it, so accept it from us. Indeed, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.”[17]

485_ We have related in the books of Ibn Mājah and Ibn as-Sunnī, on the authority of ʿAbdullah Ibn Abī Mulaykah, on the authority of Abdullah ibn ʿAmr ibn Al-ʿĀṣ, may Allah be pleased with both of them, who said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, saying: “Indeed when the fasting person breaks his fast he has a supplication that is not rejected.”’ I heard Ibn Abī Mulayka said, ‘I heard ʿAbdullah Ibn ʿAmr, when he was breaking his fast, saying: ‘O Allah, I ask You by Your Mercy, which encompasses everything, to forgive me.’[18]

4_ The chapter on what to say if one breaks one’s fast with people

486_ We have related in the Sunan of Abū Dāwūd and others, with a ṣaḥīḥ chain of transmission, on the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, came to Saʿd Ibn ʿUbādah, so he brought some bread and oil and he ate. Then the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: “Those who fast have broken their fast with you, the truly good[19] have eaten your food and the angels have sent prayers upon you.”

487_ We have related in Ibn as-Sunnī, on the authority of Anas, who said: ‘When the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, broke his fast with people he would supplicate for them and say: ““Those who fast have broken their fast with you…” until the end.

5_ The chapter on what to say if it is Laylat al-Qadr

488_ We have related with ṣaḥīḥ chains of transmission in the books of at-Tirmidhī, an-Nasāʾī, Ibn Mājah and others, on the authority of ʿĀʾisha, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, ‘I said, “O Messenger of Allah, if I know that it is Laylat al-Qadr, what do I say on it?”’ He said: “Say: “O Allah, indeed You are pardoning and You love to pardon, so pardon me.”[20] At-Tirmidhī said, ‘It is a ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ ḥadīth.’[21]

Our companions,[22] may Allah have mercy on them, have said, ‘It is recommended to say this supplication a lot on this night, and it is recommended to recite the Qurʾān and the other recommended adhkār and supplications in noble places,[23] and we have clarified them before, altogether and separately. Ash-Shāfiʿī, may Allah have mercy on him, said, ‘I recommend that one’s diligence in its day be like one’s diligence in its night.’ This is his text: ‘It is recommended to make a lot of supplications for the important matters of the Muslims, and this is a sign of the righteous and the slaves of Allah who know Him, and with Allah is every success.’

6_ The chapter on the adhkār in iʿtikāf[24]

It is recommended to do a lot of recitation of the Qurʾān and other adhkār.


[1] Translated from Al-Adhkār min Kalām Sayyid Al-Abrār by Al-Imām, Al-Ḥāfiẓ, Sheikh ul-Islām Muḥyī Al-Dīn Abī Zakariyā Yaḥyā Ibn Sharaf Al-Nawawī al-Dimashqī Al-Shāfiʿī (Damascus: Al-Maktabah Al-ʿAṣriyah, 2000/1421) p.156-158 (This is the republishing of this translation)
[2] Translator’s note(tn): i.e. addressing the crescent moon
[3] (tn): Ar. اللَّهُمَّ أهِلَّهُ عَلَيْنا باليُمْنِ وَالإِيمانِ وَالسَّلامَةِ وَالإِسْلامِ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكَ اللَّهُ
[4] (tn): Ar. اللَّهُ أكْبَرُ، اللَّهُمَّ أهِلَّهُ عَلَيْنا بالأمْنِ والإِيْمَانِ والسَّلامَةِ والإِسلامِ وَالتَّوْفِيقِ لِمَا تُحِبُّ وَتَرْضَى، رَبُّنا وَرَبُّكَ اللَّهُ "
[5] (tn): Ar. Kitāb al-Adab
[6] (tn): (‘discontinued’ or ‘disconnected’), i.e. a ḥadīth in which there is no link in the chain of transmission after a Follower, such as a Companion and/or other Follower.
[7] (tn): i.e. a ḥadīth that is connected to the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, marfūʿan, which means a statement, action, affirmation or attribute that is attributed to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by a Companion or someone later.
[8] (tn): According to Imam Ibn ʿAlān, if it was the night of Friday, he, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, would say: “This is a gharāʾ night and an azhar day.” This has been narrated by al-Bayhaqī and Ibn ʿAsākir. [Al-Futūḥāt Al-Rabbāniyyah, v.4, p.335 (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ Al-Turāth Al-ʿArabī, n.d.)] The expressions gharāʾ and azhar indicate that it is a night better than all other nights and a day better than all other days. [Fakhr Al-Dīn Al-Ṭarīḥī, Majmaʿ Al-Baḥrayn, v.3, p.387]
[9] (tn) Ar. shātamahu
[10] (tn): Imam An-Nawawī then mentions a linguistic point which can’t really be translated.
[11] (tn): Ar. ẓamʾu
[12] (tn): Ar. " ذَهَبَ الظَّمأُ، وابْتَلَّتِ العُرُوقُ، وَثَبَتَ الأجْرُ إِنْ شاءَ اللَّهُ تَعالى " .
[13] The Imam mentions another linguistic point which has been omitted.
[14] (tn): i.e. they write it as ẓamā, which is incorrect.
[15] (tn): Ar. " اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَعَلى رِزْقِكَ أفْطَرْتُ "
[16] (tn): Ar. " الحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذي أعانَنِي فَصَمْتُ، وَرَزَقَنِي فأفْطَرْتُ "
[17] (tn): Ar. " اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْنا، وَعلى رِزْقِكَ أَفْطَرْنا، فَتَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إنَّكَ أنْتَ السَّمِيعُ العَلِيم
[18] (tn): Ar. " اللَّهُمَّ إني أسألُكَ بِرَحْمَتِكَ الَّتِي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْء أنْ تَغْفِرَ لي "
[19] (tn): Ar. al-abrār
[20] (tn): Ar. اللَّهُمَّ إنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ العَفْوَ فاعْفُ عَنِّي
[21] (tn): i.e. it has a chain of transmission that is ḥasan and another that is ṣaḥīḥ
[22] (tn): i.e. the Shāfiʿīs
[23] (tn): According to Imam Ibn ʿAlān, these are the places where supplications are more likely to be accepted. [Al-Futūḥāt Al-Rabbāniyyah, v.4, p.347]
[24] (tn): i.e. spiritual retreat in the masjid

Friday, 12 May 2017

The Foreword: Don't be a Victim! (Episode 20)

Lessons from the Qur'an: The Story of Cain and Abel




This episode deals with story of Qabeel and Habeel (Cain and Abel) as related in the Qur'an, which is essentially the story of the first murder in human history and what motivated it, which was jealousy and hatred. Instead of bearing hatred and jealousy towards those who are better off than us, we should look at our own selves and seek improvement and betterment therein, and with the Lord is every success.

Related Posts:
Why are leftists so violent and intolerant?
Depression vs Gratitude

Thursday, 4 May 2017