Thursday, 18 June 2015

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Ramaḍān (Part 1)

A translation of this article from Naseem al-Sham

In the Name of Allah, the All Merciful, the Most Merciful

العلق 96:1

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Ramaḍān (Part 1)

By Asmāʾ Ramaḍān

Translated by Mahdi Lock

Introduction:

The Exalted has said, “You have an excellent model in the Messenger of Allah.” [Al-Aḥzāb 33:21]

Praise be to Allah, Lord of all Creation, Who has honoured us with the blessing of Islam and sent to us the best of mankind and made him the most excellent model in all of his statements, states and actions; may the best blessings and peace be upon him.

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the practical illustration of the Qurʾān, the precise and honest translation of its āyāt, and he is the one who called us to follow his example in his acts of worship. He has drawn for us the practical and applied illustration so that it can have clear guidelines for whoever wants to follow it.

What this Ummah must realise, in a very deep sense, is that taking the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as a model and imitating him in all aspects of his life is the only way to wake it up from its slumber and return it to the heights of glory, which it lost by turning away from diligence and veracity and faithfully implementing this doctrine. This is to be done by sincerely going back to the Book of its Lord, Mighty and Majestic, and the Sunnah of its Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He left us on the clear path; its night is like its day and no one deviates from it except that they are ruined. He was the exemplar for his Companions in his lifetime and for the Followers after his passing, as well as those who come after them and follow them with excellence until Allah inherits the earth and those upon it.

His personality, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not restricted to one nation or to one generation. Rather, it is an exemplar for every Muslim and a model for every believer whose heart has been opened to receive light. A righteous model for this Ummah is like a head for a body, or a spirit for a body; can a body be guided without a head? Can a body live without a spirit?

Any discussion on the obligation of fasting cannot be detached from his life and his guidance, peace and blessings be upon him, for it is from him that the Ummah has received Allah’s obligations upon His slaves, and these include fasting in Ramaḍān. What made me choose to write about this topic in particular is the desire to talk about the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and how he performed his worship.

However, this is a very lengthy discussion, so I thought I would single one aspect of his worship, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Also, my attention is constantly drawn towards the ḥadīth qudsī which states, {Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has said, ‘Every action of the child of Adam is for him except for fasting, for indeed it is for Me and I reward it.’} (Narrated by Muslim) and towards the various meanings that it contains regarding fasting: that the fasting person and his ego (nafs) get nothing out of it. It is the Most Generous (al-Karīm), Glorified and Exalted, who exclusively rewards it, which indicates the sublimity of its reward and vastness of His gifts, Majestic and Exalted is He.

All of this has pushed me to write about this noble month and this worship that is connected to it in the context of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the master of those who fast, the imam of those who have taqwā.

We ask Allah, Mighty and Majestic, to accept this, and may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon our master Muḥammad and upon his Family and Companions.

And our final supplication is that all praise be to Allah, Lord of all creation.


The connection between the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the blessed month of Ramaḍān

Our Master, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,          prepared for Ramaḍān before the Revelation came down

The fasting of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not some new obligation that was exclusively for this Ummah, as fasting was an obligation for the previous nations, and it was Allah’s decree, Mighty and Majestic, that the month of Ramaḍān be the month of fasting for this Ummah as well. This is why Allah prepared and readied His Messenger to receive the Revelation in the blessed month of Ramaḍān, for he would supply himself with some provisions and then go out to the cave of Ḥirāʾ, where he would remain in solitude, spending days and nights pondering on the creation of the heavens and the earth. When his provisions ran out, he would go back to his family to get some more and then return to Ḥirāʾ, far removed from people and their hubbub.


He continued to do so, increasing in nearness to Allah, Mighty and Majestic, Who encompassed him with His knowledge and taught him, refined him and prepared him to bear His final message to mankind until the end of time: “Allah chooses Messengers from the angels and from mankind. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.” [Al-Ḥajj 22:75]

The descent of the Noble Qurʾān in Ramaḍān

When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had actualised these attributes of clearness, clarity and nearness to Allah, Mighty and Majestic, the Revelation came to him and Jibrīl addressed him with the first part of the Noble Qurʾān to be sent down: “Recite: In the Name of your Lord Who created.” [Al-ʿAlaq 96:1] This was in the blessed month of Ramaḍān, and indeed on the blessed Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr).

With this we realise and understand the profundity of the Messenger of Allah’s connection, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to the blessed month of Ramaḍān…that for a person to isolate himself in order to ponder and reflect, with just a little food and drink, is the best helper for him to realise what Allah has created him for: the elevation of his spirit and the perfection of his worship of Allah, Mighty and Majestic. It is also the best assistant for him in carrying out the obligation of calling to Allah.

The Prophet’s preparation, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for Ramaḍān after being obligated to fast it and the elucidation of its virtue

For the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Ramaḍān had a special place compared to the other months of the year. As for after Allah had made its fasting an obligation for his Ummah, he would prepare to receive it and call other people to prepare for it. When the month of Rajab had come in, he would say, {O Allah, bless us in Rajab and Shaʿbān and make us reach Ramaḍān.}[1]

When Shaʿbān had entered, he would fast more, based on the statement of our Lady ʿĀʾishah: ‘He would fast Shaʿbān apart from a little bit.’[2]

As Ramaḍān approached, he would preach to the people and implore them to receive it well and to increase in acts of obedience and do more of the other acts of worship and supplications. It is on the authority of Salmān al-Fārisī, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, preached to us on the last day of Shaʿbān and said, {O people, a sublime and blessed month is approaching you. It is a month containing a night that is better than a thousand months, a month that Allah has made an obligation to fast. To stand in prayer in its nights is voluntary. Whoever draws closer to Allah therein by doing some goodness is like someone who carries out an obligation in other months. It is the month of patience, and the reward for patience is Paradise. It is the month of charity. It is a month in which the believer’s sustenance increases. Whoever feeds a fasting person when they break their fast will have their sins forgiven, and be spared from the Fire. He has the same reward as the fasting person without the fasting person’s reward being decreased at all.} They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, not all of us can find something to break someone’s fast.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, {Allah gives this reward to whomever helps someone break their fast on a date, a drink or some diluted milk. It is a month whose first part is mercy, its middle part is forgiveness and its last part is emancipation from the Fire. Increase therein in four things, two of which will make you please your Lord: the testimony that there is no god but Allah and to seek His forgiveness. As for the two other things, which are indispensable, they are that you ask Allah for Paradise and seek refuge in Him from the Fire. Whoever gives a fasting person something to drink, Allah will give him a drink from my awḍ,[3] after which he will not thirst until he enters Paradise.}[4] This ḥadīth strongly demonstrates the many distinguishing features that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has exclusively bestowed upon the month of Ramaḍān, features that have no parallel in any of the other months. They are features that are guaranteed to strengthen one’s resolve and multiply one’s striving in acts of obedience. It’s as if Ramaḍān has become a season of profitable trade in which competitors compete for the Hereafter and profits rain down on them from every direction.

As for him, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the master of those who fast and the Imam of those who have taqwā, when Ramaḍān had come he would be engaged in his worship and his rituals, his fasting and his night prayer, his recitation of the Qurʾān, his generous spending on others, his calling to Allah, Mighty and Majestic, and his teaching and instruction of others.

With the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the etiquettes of Ramaḍān

Acts of worship in Islam are a connection between the slave and His Lord that purifies his spirit and cleanses his heart and through which his chest is expanded and the slave increases in his love for Allah and his nearness to Him.

Fasting is to refrain from the desires of the stomach and the private parts, to be patient with hunger and thirst in obedience to Allah’s command, actualising the wisdom of the Creator: “I only created jinn and man to worship Me.” [Adh-Dhāriyāt 51:56]

And the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the highest example and the most excellent model in all of his worship. His Lord praised him when He said: “Indeed you are truly vast in character.” [Al-Qalam 68:4]

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called upon his Ummah to make fasting a ladder through which the soul reaches the loftiest of degrees and rises above every base quality, and Allah has made the reward of fasting a direct gift from Allah, Mighty and Majestic.

It is on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has said, ‘‘Every action of the child of Adam is for him except for fasting, for indeed it is for Me and I reward it. Fasting is a shield. If one of you is fasting one day, let him not act obscenely or raise his voice. If someone tries to trade insults with him, let him say, “I am fasting.” By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muḥammad, the breath of a fasting person is sweeter to Allah on the Day of Resurrection than the scent of musk. The fasting person has two joys: when he breaks his fast he is happy with his ifṭār, and when he meets his Lord he is happy with his fast.”}’ This has been narrated by Muslim.

It is on the authority of Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {There is no slave who fasts one day for Allah’s sake except that Allah places a distance between his face and the Fire of seventy years.} This ḥadīth is agreed upon.

This is in addition to the fact that those who fast have a door unto Paradise called ar-Rayyān, through which those who fast will enter Paradise. Once they have entered it is closed to everyone else and no else goes through it. So what if they also entered another door because of other obligations that they did with excellence? They will thus be moving from blessing to blessing, from pleasure to pleasure and from joy to joy.

We ask Allah the Exalted to make us from amongst those He has blessed: the Prophets, the Ṣiddīqīn, the martyrs and the righteous. What excellent companions they are.

His ifṭār, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

Allah has made pure things lawful for His slaves and He has made filthy things unlawful for them. He has called them towards moderation and temperance in their food, drink, clothing and shelter and He has warned them against being deluded by this worldly life and being immersed in its desires.

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the highest example of turning away from this worldly life and abstaining from it, and only partaking in a few of its pleasures and blessings. He is a most excellent model for every poor and rich person from his Ummah, and he was extremely generous because he had absolutely certainty in his Lord’s statement, Mighty and Majestic: “My people! The life of this world is only fleeting enjoyment. It is the Hereafter that is the abode of permanence.” [Ghāfir 40:39]

He is a most excellent model for the poor in that he was pleased for himself and his family to only have a little bit of expenditure and very simple sustenance. It is on the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would break his fast before he prayed with some ripe dates. If there weren’t any ripe dates then with some dried dates and if there weren’t any dried dates then he would have some sips of water.’[5]

It is also on the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, loved to break his fast on three dried dates or something that hadn’t been touched by fire. He, may Allah be pleased with him, also said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would break his fast on milk and ʿajwah dates.

It is on the authority of ʿĀʾishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Fetch us the blessed meal}, i.e. suḥūr,[6] and maybe it was only two dried dates.’[7]

It is on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {What an excellent suḥūr dried dates are for the believer.}’[8]

It is on the authority of Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Suḥūr is a blessed meal so don’t neglect it, even if one of you were to only have a gulp of water, for indeed Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who have suḥūr.}’[9]

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, establishing that the crescent moon has been sighted for Ramaḍān and Shawwāl

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would not start fasting Ramaḍān unless there had been a verified sighting or the testimony of one witness. Therefore, if there had been no sighting and no testimony, he completed Shaʿbān as thirty days. He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not stipulate that he see it himself. Rather, he accepted the sighting of any man from amongst the Muslims, regardless of whether he was from the city or the countryside.

Entering into Ramaḍān means entering into an act of worship that is one of the five pillars of Islam, and this obligation cannot be built upon doubt but upon certainty that will not be negated. This is why he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fast or command others to fast unless there had been a sighting or they had completed thirty days of Shaʿbān, even if he hadn’t seen the crescent moon because of clouds[10] or dust[11], as it must have been there because a month can’t be more than thirty days. A sighting or the completion of Shaʿbān is one of the conditions for fasting to be valid. Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has said, “And those of you who are present for the month should fast it.” [Al-Baqarah 2:185]

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Do not fast until you see the crescent moon and do not break your fast until you see it, and if it is obscured from you then count it.}[12]

It is on the authority of Ibn ʿUmar, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The people went out to sight the moon and I informed the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that I had sighted it, so he fasted and commanded the people to fast.’[13]

And this is how we find that he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, accepted the testimony of one upright witness only when sighting the crescent moon for Ramaḍān. As for sighting the crescent moon for Shawwāl, which would signify for people to stop fasting, he would only accept the testimony of two upright witnesses, and if not he would complete Ramaḍān as thirty days.
            
His, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hastening to break his fast and his hastening to pray

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would not break his fast until he knew with certainty that the sun had set, and once he knew he would hurry to break it. This is due to his statement, may Allah bless him and grant him peace: {When the night has drawn near, the day has slipped away and the sun has gone down, the fasting person has broken his fast}[14] i.e. he now carries the ruling of someone who has broken his fast, even if he hasn’t eaten.

It is on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {The religion will remain manifest as long as the people hasten to break their fast. The Jews and Christians delay it.}[15]

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would not delay breaking his fast or proceed slowly towards doing so once he had ascertained that the sun had gone down and the night had begun. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {My Ummah will remain upon goodness as long as they hasten to break their fast and delay their suḥūr.}[16]

Therefore we can see that hastening to break the fast corresponds with his guidance, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it makes Allah, Mighty and Majestic, love His slaves. He is the One we are worshipping with our fasting, and He has called us to hasten to break our fasts, to do so as soon as the fasting people have completed their fasts, and they carry out for Allah what He has obligated them. They are indeed mistaken those who think that it is better and more cautious so delay breaking the fast until the stars are visible in the sky, as is the practice of the People of the Book.  And whoever thinks that it is better to pray before breaking the fast has gone against the guidance of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and turned away from his Sunnah.

As for merely praying before breaking one’s fast, this is something that contravenes his guidance, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leads to one being distracted in one’s prayer and losing one’s submissiveness (khushūʿ) therein, and this isn’t confined to breaking one’s fast before prayer in Ramaān. Rather, it comprises every prayer in which food is present, in which case one gives precedence to the food over the prayer and thereby follows his Sunnah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is on the authority of ʿĀʾishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, {There is no prayer in the presence of food or when one needs to relieve oneself.}’[17]

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in his suḥūr and his abstaining

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, established the practice of eating suḥūr, and its time is saḥar, which is the hour that precedes the crack of dawn. He would encourage suḥūr and awaken a desire for it. It is on the authority of Anas ibn Mālik, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Eat suḥūr, for indeed there are blessings (barakah) in suḥūr.}[18]

The secret behind the barakah in this meal is that it happens at a time when mercies are descending, a time of turning to Allah and seeking His forgiveness,[19] and it is at a time in which food is not normally desired and enjoyed. It is from this meal that the fasting person seeks assistance in obeying Allah and carrying out the obligation to fast, and to strengthen his body so that he can carry out his duties of striving, working and seeking a livelihood. What increases this meal in barakah is that it is exclusive to this Ummah and a mercy that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has bestowed upon it. It is on the authority of ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {The virtue of our fasting over that of the People of the Book is in the meal of suḥūr.}[20]

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would love dried dates at suḥūr. It is on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {What an excellent suḥūr dried dates are for the believer.}’[21]

What is to be considered in suḥūr is not an abundance of food but to comply with the Sunnah and obtain virtue by having less, even if it is just two dried dates. It is on the authority of Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Suḥūr is a blessed meal so don’t neglect it, even if one of you were to only have a gulp of water, for indeed Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who have suḥūr.}’[22]

The time of his suḥūr, may Allah bless him and grant him peace

It is from the Sunnah to delay one’s suḥūr and hasten one’s ifṭār. It is on the authority of Sahl ibn Saʿd, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {My Ummah will remain upon goodness as long as they delay their suḥūr and hasten to break their fast.}[23]

It is on the authority of Zayd ibn Thābit, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, ‘We ate suḥūr with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then we stood for prayer.’ Anas said, ‘How much time passed between the two?’ He replied, ‘Enough time to recite fifty āyāt.’[24] This is understood to be the time between finishing eating and establishing the prayer, because finishing eating either coincides with the crack of dawn or happens just before it. As for the prayer, it is delayed to the extent that one can recite fifty āyāt. There is a noble āyah that has clearly elucidated the time at which one should stop eating, and it is the Exalted’s statement: “Eat and drink until you can clearly discern the white thread from the black thread of the dawn, then fulfil the fast until the night appears.” [Al-Baqarah 2:187]

One should not be extreme by finishing eating a long time before dawn, or make people think that it is not valid for them to have any food after finishing their suḥūr or after the first adhān,[25] because what is considered is the crack of true dawn according to the time that has been determined for it.

As for when a fasting person finishes his suḥūr ten minutes before dawn, more or less, there is no objection as long as he believes that it is lawful to eat until the crack of dawn.[26] Likewise, if one were to stop eating a minute or two before dawn as a precaution against falling into something forbidden, there is no objection, and may even be more virtuous and closer to piety, and Allah knows best.
           
His, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, intention to fast from the night before, before dawn

Every act of worship has an intention, and it is not valid to carry out any worshipful act without an intention. It is on the authority of ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, {Actions are only by intentions, and every person has only that which he intended. Whoever’s immigration is for Allah and His Messenger then his emigration is for Allah and His Messenger. Whoever’s emigration is for some worldly gain which he can acquire or a woman he will marry then his emigration is for that for which he emigrated.}[27]

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made it an obligation to intend one’s fast. It is on the authority of ʿUmar, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, ‘It is from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that he said, {Whoever does not decide to fast before dawn has no fast.}[28]

The scholars of the imams have come to a unanimous agreement that the intention must be made the night before,[29] based on these aḥādīth, and Abū Ḥanīfah deemed it permissible to make the intention after dawn.

The time for the intention is from after sunset until the first appearance of the sun, and there is no harm in eating after one has made it. It is not obligatory to verbally articulate it as the place of intention is the heart.
            
The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his  family in Ramaḍān

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most excellent model for his Ummah in every noble quality. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made the goodness of man’s conduct with his family a standard for gauging his righteousness and a sign of his magnanimity and noble character. He said, {The best of you are the best of you to his family, and I am the best of you to my family.}[30]

Ramaḍān did not change his good companionship and his gentle conduct with his wives, may Allah be pleased with all of them, and in his conduct towards his family in Ramaḍān he legislates for his Ummah what is lawful and what is unlawful, what is permissible and what is forbidden, what is recommended and what is disliked. One thing that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has made permissible for the fasting person is to kiss his wife. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would do this, legislating for his Ummah in the matter of fasting, and he didn’t do it in response to a desire. It is on the authority of ʿĀʾishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that she said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would kiss some of his wives while he was fasting’, and then she laughed.[31]

She didn’t declare this or state it in order to encourage kissing or to call for it. Rather, she did so to clarify the situation for the one who is in control of his desire and safe from falling into the unlawful. It is known from the religion by necessity[32] that fasting is to abstain from the desires of one’s stomach and private parts from dawn until sunset.

And it has been mentioned in the adīth qudsī that is related on the authority of Abū Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him: {He leaves his food, his drink and his desires for My sake. Fasting is for Me and I reward it.}[33] Therefore, a man kissing his wife during the daytime in Ramaān is permissible for the one who is in control of his desire. If kissing is going to lead to something impermissible then it would corrupt one’s fast, and thus it would be a sin to do so.

As for at night, a fasting person’s wife is lawful for him just as his food and drink are lawful for him. The Exalted has said, “On the night of the fast it is lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives. They are clothing for you and you for them.” [Al-Baqarah 2:187]

In the nights of Ramaān, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was with his wives the way he was all other nights: fulfilling their rights and enjoying what Allah had made lawful for him in their regard.



[1] Related by al-Bazzār and at-Ṭabarānī in al-Awsaṭ
[2] Related by Muslim
[3] (tn): i.e. the pool or basin of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which the believers will drink from before entering Paradise
[4] Related by Ibn Mājah, who declared it authentic, and related from his same path by al-Bayhaqī
[5] Related by Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd and at-Tirmidhī
[6] (tn): i.e. the pre-dawn meal
[7] Related by an-Nasāʾī
[8] Related by Abū Dāwūd
[9] Related by Amad
[10] Ar. ghaym, which can also mean mist or fog
[11] Ar. ʿajāj, which can also mean smoke
[13] Related by Abū Dāwūd and ad-Dāraqunī and declared authentic Ibn ibbān and al-Ḥākim, and adh-Dhahabī confirmed it.
[14] Related by Muslim, at-Tirmidhī and Amad ibn anbal
[15] Related by al-Bukhārī and Amad ibn anbal
[16] Related by Amad and mentioned by al-Haythamī
[17] Related by Muslim
[18] Agreed upon
[19] (tn): Please see adh-Dhāriyāt 51:18: “And they would seek forgiveness before the dawn.”
[20] Related by Muslim and others
[21] Related by Abū Dāwūd with an authentic chain of transmission
[22] Related by Amad
[23] Related by al-Bukhārī
[24] Agreed upon
[25] (tn): i.e. the first call to prayer, which signifies that dawn is approaching and not that it has actually entered
[26] (tn): i.e. he doesn’t believe that one is obliged to stop eating ten minutes before dawn
[27] Agreed upon
[28] Related by Abū Dāwūd
[29] (tn): i.e. before dawn or before one goes to bed the night before, in case one fails to wake up for suḥūr
[30] Related by At-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah and ad-Dārimī (tn): what is specifically being referred to here is wives
[31] Agreed upon
[32] Ar. maʿlūm min ad-dīn bi ad-arūrah
[33] Related by al-Bukhārī

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