I’m an adult, twenty-five years old…am I obliged to learn the rules for reciting the Qurʾān as well as fiqh or are they sunnah? As a young Muslim, what is the minimum that I am obligated to learn?
Answer (from Sheikh Rushdī Salīm Al-Qalam):
Praise be to Allah, and He suffices, and peace be upon His Chosen Messenger:
It is obligatory upon every human being to know what he is obliged to learn in order to carry out his prayers, his zakāt, his fasting and his Ḥajj, as these are all individual obligations. The person who prays must have proficiency in the Fātiḥah and well as some sūrahs through which his prayer is validated. Likewise, with other matters of fiqh, it depends on what is needed. Thus, the merchant must know the rulings regarding trade, usury and partnerships before entering the market. The person who does not own any wealth is not compelled to know the details of zakāt with regards to himself, and all rulings must be learned from Muslims who are proficient in such matters and specialise therein.
 (tn): i.e. recommended in the Revealed Law, which is synonymous with words like mandūb and mustaḥabb.
 (tn): For the Shāfiʿīs, the obligation includes ʿUmrah. Please see Al-Baqarah 2:196 as well as Sūrat Al-Tawbah 9:3, in which Allah refers to Ḥajj as Al-Hajj Al-Akbar, or the greater Ḥajj. If there is a greater Ḥajj then there must be a great Ḥajj, or Al-Hajj Al-Kabīr, which would be ʿUmrah. Thus, both Ḥajj and ʿUmrah must be performed once in a Muslim’s lifetime.
 (tn): Ar. al-bayʿ
 (tn): Ar. al-ribā
 (tn): Ar. al-sharikah
 (tn): i.e. Muslims who are qualified to teach such matters