Sunnahs of Ṣalāt Al-ʿĪd
By Sheikh Wahba Az-Zuḥaylī
It is sunnah to do it in the masjid due to its honour, and if it is prayed outside it is disliked unless the masjid isn’t big enough for the people. Then the sunnah would be to do it outside, due to following, and it would be disliked to do it in the masjid. If there is rain or extreme heat, then it is done in the masjid. It is absolutely sunnah to do it in the Masjids of Makka and Jerusalem, following the Salaf and the Khalaf.
It is also sunnah to revive the nights of the two ʿĪds in worship, recitation of the Qurʾān and dhikr, due to what has been related with weak chains of transmission, “Whoever revives the night of ʿĪd, Allah revives his heart on the day hearts die.” This reviving is achieved by spending most of the night.
It is recommended to have a ghusl after the middle of the night has passed, to scent oneself, to wear one’s best clothes, to look one’s best whether one is in one’s house or going out to the ʿĪd prayer, for both the old and the young, in the place of prayer or elsewhere, and it is recommended for children to attend looking their best.
It is recommended for the elderly to attend without scent or embellishment. For other than the imam, it is recommended to go to the place of prayer early, after the fajr prayer, to walk there and back, and to come back home a different way that is also shorter, as is the case with all other acts of worship.
For the prayer on ʿĪd Al-Aḍḥā, one should make haste to the place of prayer, but for ʿĪd Al-Fiṭr, one should delay oneself slightly, due to his command, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which has been related mursalan, to do so. With regards to the former, this is so that there is ample time after the ʿĪd Al-Aḍḥā prayer to perform the sacrifice, while with regards to the latter; it is so that there is ample time beforehand to give the Zakāt Al-Fiṭr.
On ʿĪd Al-Fiṭr, it is recommended to eat and drink before the prayer while on the ʿĪd of the Sacrifice, it is recommended to refrain from eating, due to ittibāʾ, so that the two days are distinguished from the days that precede them. It is sunnah to eat from the liver of the sacrificed animal, due to ittibāʾ, and it is also sunnah to have an odd number of dates, due to ittibāʾ.
[Translated from Al-Fiqh Al-Shāfiʿī Al-Muyassar (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 2008), p.285-286]
A note on takbīr:
The takbīr is as follows:
Allah Akbar Allah Akbar Allah Akbar
Lā ilāha illa Allah, w-Allah Akbar Allah Akbar, wa lillahil ḥamd.
Allah Akbar kabīra, wal-Ḥamdu lillahi Kathīra, wa subḥān Allahī bukratan wa aṣīla.
الله اكبر الله اكبر الله اكبر
لا اله الا الله و الله اكبر الله اكبر و لله الحمد
الله اكبر كبيرا و الحمد لله كثيرا و سبحان الله بكرة و أصيلا
For those not on Ḥajj, it is recommended to make takbīr from dawn on the Day of ʿArafa, i.e. the 9th of Dhū Al-Ḥijja, until ʿAsr on the last day of tashrīq, i.e. the 13th of Dhū Al-Ḥijja, after every prayer, obligatory or supererogatory, current or make-up, funeral prayer etc. If one forgets, one does it upon remembering.
Please see Al-Fiqh Al-Shāfiʿī Al-Muyassar (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 2008), p.287-288.
And Allah knows best.
Jumuʿah Prayer on ʿĪd
[Question] In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful. May the peace, blessings and mercy of Allah be upon you. Is the obligation to pray the Jumuʿah prayer dropped if the first day of ʿĪd is a Friday? Thank you very much and may you always be in a good state.
[Answer (Sheikh Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān Al-Būṭī)]:
The obligation to pray the Jumuʿah prayer is not dropped because of it coinciding with ʿĪd if the person praying is present inside the city or town in which the ʿĪd and Jumuʿah prayers are held. The obligation is only dropped for someone who comes from another town to pray the ʿĪd prayer, for if he returns to his town he is not obliged to return once again to the town in which he performed the ʿĪd prayer in order to perform the Jumuʿah prayer.
[This original Arabic of this fatwā can be read here.]
 (tn): i.e. recommended
 (tn): Ar. Al-ittibāʾ, i.e. following the ḥadīth, which is a common term used by the Shāfiʿīs
 (tn): Ar. aḥyā, which literally means to revive or bring to life but in this context would mean to spend, i.e. spend the night in worship. Please see the ḥadīth below.
 Related by Ad-Dāraquṭnī mawqūfan [i.e. a statement, action or affirmation that is attributed to a Companion or group of Companions]. An-Nawawī says in Al-Majmūʾ, ‘Its chains of transmission are weak.’ He also adds that despite that, the scholars have recommended that the night be spent in worship, because weak ḥadīth are acted upon with regards to virtuous actions (faḍāʾil al-aʿamāl).
 (tn): i.e. a ḥadīth in which there is no link in the chain of transmission after a Follower, such as a Companion and/or other Follower.
 (tn): i.e. before the prayer.
 (tn) It is related that Ibn Masʿūd would do this, may Allah be pleased with him, as related by Ibn Abī Shayba and Al-Ḥākim, and it is also related that ʿAlī did it, may Allah be pleased with him.